The following are definitions for the various types of chickens:
Broiler-fryer – a young, tender chicken about 7 weeks old which weighs 2 1/2 to 4 1/2 pounds when eviscerated. Cook by any method.
Rock Cornish Game Hen– a small broiler-fryer weighing between 1 and 2 pounds. Usually stuffed and roasted whole.
Roaster – an older chicken about 3 to 5 months old which weighs 5 to 7 pounds. It yields more meat per pound than a broiler-fryer. Usually roasted whole
Capon – Male chickens about 16 weeks to 8 months old which are surgically un-sexed. They weigh about 4 to 7 pounds and have generous quantities of tender, light meat. Usually roasted.
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Stewing/Baking Hen – a mature laying hen 10 months to 1 1/2 years old. Since the meat is less tender than young chickens, it’s best used in moist cooking such as stewing.
Cock or Rooster – a mature male chicken with coarse skin and tough, dark meat. Requires long, moist cooking.
All chickens found in retail stores are either inspected by USDA or by state systems which have standards equivalent to the Federal government. Each chicken and its internal organs are inspected for signs of disease.
The “Inspected for wholesomeness by the U.S. Department of Agriculture” seal insures the chicken is free from visible signs of disease.
Inspection is mandatory but grading is voluntary. Chickens are graded according to USDA Agricultural Marketing Service regulations and standards for meatiness, appearance and freedom from defects. Grade A chickens have plump, meaty bodies and clean skin, free of bruises, broken bones, feathers, cuts and discoloration.
Fresh or Frozen
The term fresh on a poultry label refers to any raw poultry product that has never been below 26 °F. Raw poultry held at 0 °F or below must be labeled frozen or previously frozen. No specific labeling is required on raw poultry stored at temperatures between 0-25 °F.
Dating of Chicken Products
Product dating is not required by Federal regulations, but many stores and processors voluntarily date packages of chicken or chicken products. If a calendar date is shown, immediately adjacent to the date there must be a phrase explaining the meaning of that date such as sell by or use before.
The use-by date is for quality assurance; after the date, peak quality begins to lessen but the product may still be used. It’s always best to buy a product before the date expires. If a use-by date expires while the chicken is frozen, the food can still be used.
Hormones and Antibiotics
No hormones are used in the raising of chickens.
Antibiotics may be given to prevent disease and increase feed efficiency. A “withdrawal” period is required from the time antibiotics are administered before the bird can be slaughtered.
This ensures that no residues are present in the bird’s system. FSIS randomly samples poultry at slaughter and tests for residues. Data from this monitoring program have shown a very low percentage of residue violations.
Additives are not allowed on fresh chicken. If chicken is processed, however, additives such as MSG, salt, or sodium erythorbate may be added but must be listed on the label.
Food borne Organisms Associated with Chicken
As on any perishable meat, fish or poultry, bacteria can be found on raw or undercooked chicken. They multiply rapidly at temperatures between 40 °F and 140 °F (out of refrigeration and before thorough cooking occurs).
Freezing doesn’t kill bacteria but they are destroyed by thorough cooking of any food to 160 °F.
USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service has a zero tolerance for bacteria in cooked and ready-to-eat products such as chicken franks or lunchmeat that can be eaten without further cooking.
Most food borne illness outbreaks are a result of contamination from food handlers. Sanitary food handling and proper cooking and refrigeration should prevent food borne illnesses.
Bacteria must be consumed on food to cause illness. They cannot enter the body through a skin cut. However, raw poultry must be handled carefully to prevent cross-contamination.
This can occur if raw poultry or its juices contact cooked food or foods that will be eaten raw such as salad. An example of this is chopping tomatoes on an unwashed cutting board just after cutting raw chicken on it.
Following are some bacteria associated with chicken:
Salmonella Enteriditis may be found in the intestinal tracts of livestock, poultry, dogs, cats and other warm-blooded animals. This strain is only one of about 2,000 kinds of Salmonella bacteria; it is often associated with poultry and shell eggs.
Staphylococcus aureus can be carried on human hands, in nasal passages, or in throats. The bacteria are found in foods made by hand and improperly refrigerated, such as chicken salad.
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of diarrheal illness in humans. Preventing cross- contamination and using proper cooking methods reduces infection by this bacterium.
Listeria monocytogenes was recognized as causing human food borne illness in 1981. It is destroyed by cooking, but a cooked product can be contaminated by poor personal hygiene. Observe “keep refrigerated” and “use-by” dates on labels.
Rinsing or Soaking Chicken
It is not necessary to wash raw chicken. Any bacteria which might be present are destroyed by cooking.
Liquid in Package
Many people think the pink liquid in packaged fresh chicken is blood, but it is mostly water which was absorbed by the chicken during the chilling process. Blood is removed from poultry during slaughter and only a small amount remains in the muscle tissue. An improperly bled chicken would have cherry red skin and is condemned at the plant.
Wash hands, cutting board, utensils, and work surface with hot, soapy water before and after handling raw and cooked poultry.
Keep raw poultry in the refrigerator (40 °F). Cook within 1 to 2 days, or freeze it.
Keep frozen poultry in the freezer (0 °F). Cook (To 165°F internal Temperature using a meat thermometer placed in meat not touching bone) promptly after thawing. Thaw in the refrigerator; in cold water, changing the water every 30 minutes; or in a microwave oven.
Keep cooked poultry in the refrigerator. Use within 4 days, or freeze it.
Completely cook poultry at one time. Never partially cook, then store and finish cooking later.
Whole birds should be stuffed just before cooking. Mix dry ingredients with other ingredients (for example, margarine, onion, and broth) just before stuffing the bird. Remove stuffing from the bird immediately after cooking. Store stuffing separately in the refrigerator.
When serving poultry, never leave it out of the refrigerator more than 2 hours.
Put cooked poultry on a clean plate, never on a plate that held raw poultry and had not yet been thoroughly washed.
When purchasing fully cooked rotisserie or fast food chicken, be sure it is hot at time of purchase. Use it within two hours or cut it into several pieces and refrigerate in shallow, covered containers. Eat within 3 to 4 days, either cold or reheated to 165 °F (hot and steaming). It is safe to freeze ready-prepared chicken. For best quality, flavor and texture, use within 4 months.
FSIS recommends three ways to defrost chicken: in the refrigerator, in cold water and in the microwave. Never defrost chicken on the counter or in other locations. It’s best to plan ahead for slow, safe thawing in the refrigerator.
Boneless chicken breasts will usually defrost overnight. Bone-in parts and whole chickens may take 1 to 2 days or longer. Once the raw chicken defrosts, it can be kept in the refrigerator an additional day or two before cooking. During this time, if chicken defrosted in the refrigerator is not used, it can safely be refrozen without cooking first.
Chicken may be defrosted in cold water in its airtight packaging or in a leak proof bag. Submerge the bird or cut-up parts in cold water, changing the water every 30 minutes to be sure it stays cold. A whole (3 to 4-pound) broiler fryer or package of parts should defrost in 2 to 3 hours. A 1-pound package of boneless breasts will defrost in an hour or less.
Chicken defrosted in the microwave should be cooked immediately after thawing because some areas of the food may become warm and begin to cook during microwaving.
Holding partially cooked food is not recommended because any bacteria present wouldn’t have been destroyed. Foods defrosted in the microwave or by the cold water method should be cooked before refreezing.
Do not cook frozen chicken in the microwave or in a slow cooker. However, chicken can be cooked from the frozen state in the oven or on the stove. The cooking time may be about 50% longer.
We do not recommend buying retail-stuffed fresh whole chicken because of the highly perishable nature of a previously stuffed item. Consumers should not pre-stuff whole chicken to cook at a later time.
Chicken can be stuffed immediately before cooking. Some USDA-inspected frozen stuffed whole poultry MUST be cooked from the frozen state to ensure a safely cooked product. Follow preparation directions on the label.
Chicken may be marinated in the refrigerator up to 2 days. Boil used marinade before brushing on cooked chicken. Discard any uncooked leftover marinade.
For tenderness and doneness, FSIS recommends cooking whole chicken to an internal temperature of 165 °F as measured in the thigh using a food thermometer. For approximate cooking times to use in meal planning, see the following chart compiled from various resources.
|TYPE OF CHICKEN||WEIGHT||ROASTING
|Whole broiler fryer+||3 to 4 lbs.||1 1/4 – 1 1/2 hrs.||60 to 75 min.||60 to 75 min*|
|Whole roasting hen+||5 to 7 lbs.||2 to 2 1/4 hrs.||1 3/4 to 2 hrs.||18-25 min/lb*|
|Whole capon+||4 to 8 lbs.||2 to 3 hrs||Not suitable||15-20 min/lb*|
|Whole Cornish hens+||18-24 oz.||50 to 60 min.||35 to 40 min.||45 to 55 min*|
|Breast halves, bone-in||6 to 8 oz.||30 to 40 min.||35 to 45 min.||10 – 15 min/side|
|Breast half, boneless||4 ounces||20 to 30 min.||25 to 30 min.||6 to 8 min/side|
|Legs or thighs||8 or 4 oz.||40 to 50 min.||40 to 50 min.||10 – 15 min/side|
|Drumsticks||4 ounces||35 to 45 min.||40 to 50 min.||8 to 12 min/side|
|Wings or wingettes||2 to 3 oz.||30 to 40 min.||35 to 45 min.||8 to 12 min/side|
+ Un-stuffed. If stuffed, add 15 to 30 minutes additional time.
* Indirect method using drip pan.
Microwave on medium-high (70 percent power): whole chicken, 9 to 10 minutes per pound; bone-in parts and Cornish hens, 8 to 9 minutes per pound; boneless breasts halves, 6 to 8 minutes per pound.
When microwaving parts, arrange in dish or on rack so thick parts are toward the outside of dish and thin or bony parts are in the center.
Place whole chicken in an oven cooking bag or in a covered pot.
For boneless breast halves, place in a dish with 1/4 cup water; cover with plastic wrap.
Allow 10 minutes standing time for bone-in chicken; 5 minutes for boneless breast.
Use a food thermometer to test for doneness in several places, and check for visual signs of doneness as above.
Never brown or partially cook chicken to refrigerate and finish cooking later because any bacteria present wouldn’t have been destroyed. It is safe to partially pre-cook or microwave chicken immediately before transferring it to the hot grill to finish cooking.
Chicken is a healthful meat which provides a significant amount of protein. A 100-gram (3 1/2-ounce) portion of roasted breast meat with skin has 197 calories, 30 grams of protein, 84 milligrams cholesterol and 7.8 grams fat (35% of total calories). To eliminate about half the fat, trim away the skin before eating the meat. It makes little difference in the fat content whether the skin is removed before or after cooking, but the meat is more moist and tender when cooked with the skin on.
Color of Skin
Chicken skin color varies from cream-colored to yellow. Skin color is a result of the type of feed eaten by the chicken, not a measure of nutritional value, flavor, tenderness or fat content. Color preferences vary in different sections of the country, so growers use the type of feed which produces the desired color.
Darkening around bones occurs primarily in young broiler-fryers. Since their bones have not calcified completely, pigment from the bone marrow can seep through the porous bones. Freezing can also contribute to this seepage. When the chicken is cooked, the pigment turns dark. It’s perfectly safe to eat chicken meat that turns dark during cooking.
When testing for doneness, rubbery pink meat and pink juices are a sign that the chicken needs additional cooking. However, if the chicken has reached 180 °F, the juices run clear and the meat is tender but looks pink, it should be safe to eat. The pink color in safely cooked chicken is due to the hemoglobin in tissues which can form a heat-stable color. Smoking or grilling may also cause this reaction, which occurs more in young birds.
Color of Giblets
Giblet color can vary, especially in the liver, from mahogany to yellow. The type of feed, the chicken’s metabolism and its breed can account for the variation in color. If the liver is green, do not eat it. This is due to bile retention. However, the chicken meat should be safe to eat.
Chickens may seem to have more fatty deposits or contain a larger “fat pad” than in the past. This is because broiler fryer chickens have been bred to grow very rapidly to supply the demand for more chicken. Feed that is not converted into muscle tissue (meat) is metabolized into fat. However, the fat is not “marbled” into the meat as is beef or other red meat, and can be easily removed. Geneticists are researching ways to eliminate the excess fat.
Food-grade trisodium phosphate (TSP) has been approved by FSIS for use in poultry slaughter as an antimicrobial agent. When immersed in and/or sprayed in a dilute solution on chickens, it can significantly reduce bacteria levels. TSP is “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration FDA, and has been safely used for years, particularly in processed cheese.
Irradiation of Poultry
In 1992, the USDA approved a rule to permit irradiation of raw, fresh or frozen packaged poultry to control certain common bacteria on raw poultry that can cause illness when poultry is undercooked or otherwise mishandled. Irradiation at 1.5 to 3.0 kiloGray, the smallest, most practical “dose,” would eliminate more than 99 percent of Salmonellae organisms on the treated poultry.
Packages of irradiated chicken are easily recognizable at the store because they must carry the international radura symbol along with the statement, “treated with irradiation” or “treated by irradiation.”
Since product dates aren’t a guide for safe use of a product, how long can the consumer store the food and still use it at top quality? Follow these tips:
Purchase the product before the date expires. Follow handling recommendations on product. Keep chicken in its package until using. Freeze chicken in its original packaging, over wrap or re-wrap it according to directions in the above section, “How to Handle Chicken Safely”.
REFRIGERATOR HOME STORAGE (at 40° F or below) OF CHICKEN PRODUCTS
PRODUCT REFRIGERATOR STORAGE TIMES Fresh Chicken, Giblets or Ground Chicken 1 to 2 days Cooked Chicken, Leftover 3 to 4 days Chicken Broth or Gravy 1 to 2 days Cooked Chicken Casseroles, Dishes or Soup 3 to 4 days Cooked Chicken Pieces, covered with broth or gravy 1 to 2 days Cooked Chicken Nuggets, Patties 1 to 2 days Fried Chicken 3 to 4 days Take-Out Convenience Chicken (Rotisserie, Fried, etc.) 3 to 4 days Restaurant Chicken Leftovers, brought immediately home in a “Doggy Bag” 3 to 4 days Store-cooked Chicken Dinner including gravy 1 to 2 days Chicken Salad 3 to 5 days Deli-sliced Chicken Luncheon Meat 3 to 5 days Chicken Luncheon Meat, sealed in package 2 weeks (but no longer than 1 week after a “sell-by” date) Chicken Luncheon Meat, after opening 3 to 5 days Vacuum-packed Dinners, Commercial brand with USDA seal Unopened 2 weeks
Opened 3 to 4 days
Chicken Hotdogs, unopened 2 weeks (but no longer than 1 week after a “sell-by” date) Chicken Hotdogs, after opening 7 days Canned Chicken Products 2 to 5 years in pantry
Wholesomeness…quality…class…nutritive value…cost…convenience…and informative labeling are some of the points to consider when purchasing poultry.
All poultry must be officially inspected to ensure that it is wholesome, properly labeled, and not adulterated. The processing plant’s premises, facilities, equipment, and procedures must be inspected. And, the inspection stamp must appear on the label. This mandatory inspection is done by USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service. It must be done before poultry can be graded for quality.
Poultry inspection procedures are designed to minimize the likelihood of harmful bacteria being present in poultry products. However, some bacteria could be present and could become a problem if the poultry is not handled properly during preparation. USDA requires that safe handling and cooking instructions be put on all packages of raw poultry; this includes any poultry product not considered “ready to eat.”
Processed poultry products considered “ready to eat”– such as poultry hotdogs, luncheon meats, and turkey ham — are also perishable. They, too, should be kept refrigerated and handled with care to prevent spoilage.
For information about poultry inspection and safety, call USDA’s Meat and Poultry Hotline. The national toll-free number is 800-535-4555. In the Washington, DC, area, call (202) 720-3333.
Grading involves evaluating poultry in terms of quality standards. Quality standards reflect factors that affect the inherent properties of poultry, factors that determine its relative degree of excellence or value. The highest quality is U.S. Grade A, the only grade you are likely to see in the store. U.S. Grades B and C may be sold at retail, but are usually used in further-processed products where the poultry meat is cut up, chopped, or ground.
The official grade shield certifies that the poultry has been graded for quality by a technically trained government grader. USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service provides the grading service, on a voluntary basis, to poultry processors and others who request it and pay a fee for it.
U.S. grades apply to six kinds of poultry: chicken, turkey, duck, goose, guinea, and pigeon.
The USDA grade shield may be found on the following ready-to-cook poultry products, whether chilled or frozen:
whole poultry carcasses,, poultry parts — with or without the skin, bone-in or boneless,
poultry roasts, and poultry tenderloins.
There are no grade standards for poultry necks, wing tips, tails, giblets, or poultry meat that is diced, shredded, or ground.
U.S. Grade A Poultry
Grade A poultry whole carcasses and bone-in parts are fully fleshed and meaty; have a good conformation, a normal shape; are free of disjointed or broken bones; have a well-developed and well-distributed layer of fat in the skin; are free of pinfeathers, exposed flesh, and discolorations; and, in the case of whole carcasses, have no missing parts.
Grade A boneless poultry products are free of bone, cartilage, tendons, bruises, and blood clots.
Grade A poultry products that are frozen must be free of freezing defects such as dehydration or excess moisture.